Diagnosis of PAD requires thorough physical examination, Ankle-brachial index (ABI) test, ultrasound, angiography and blood tests. Its treatment may include lifestyle changes, medications (to manage the causative disorders like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes etc.) or surgery.
Surgery is generally required in some severe cases
- Angioplasty: It is a procedure in which a catheter with a small balloon on its tip is threaded through a blood vessel to the affected artery. On reaching the artery, the balloon is inflated so that artery can be opened and the blockage is flattened. A mesh framework called a stent may also be inserted to keep it open.
- Bypass surgery: This involves the creation of a graft bypass using a vessel from another part of the patient's body or a blood vessel made of synthetic fabric to allow blood to bypass the blocked or narrowed artery.
- Thrombolytic therapy: This is an injection of a clot-dissolving drug into the artery at the point of the clot to break it up and improve blood flow.